What is an earthquake (scientifically speaking)
From lecture, how is throwing a rock in a calm pool of water related to earthquake rupture on the surface of the earth?
If you were a frog sitting on a lily pad, what motions would you feel as the wave (disturbance) from the rock hitting the pond passes along the water surface. How would this relate to an earthquake on land.
In your own words and after viewing the lecture, write a “scientific” definition of an earthquake.
Draw a block diagram and define the following common terms that apply to earthquakes
Epicenter b. Focus c. Seismic Waves d. Hypocenter
How is the epicenter related but different from the focus?
How is the focus and hypocenter related?
Why are seismic waves considered vibrations
3. Earthquakes are measured using the seismograph.
What does the seismograph measure during an earthquake?
Describe the differences between a seismograph and seismogram
Why is it important to have several seismograph stations measuring the same earthquake?
4. The Elastic Rebound Theory:
From lecture, describe in your own words, the elastic rebound theory
Now, from question 1 above, redescribe the elastic rebound theory using the terms: stress, strain, potential energy, kinetic energy, and vibrations. How did these terms fit into your first description of the elastic rebound theory
How do aftershocks from an earthquake relate to the elastic rebound theory?
On your own, use a wooden pencil (a pencil that you are willing to destroy) and slowly bend the pencil until it breaks. As the pencil slowly bends (not breaking yet), how does this relate to rocks and the elastic rebound theory?
Continue to bend the pencil and now it snaps. How does this relate to rocks and the elastic rebound theory?
Now, slowly bring the broken parts of the pencil back together. How does this relate to the elastic rebound theory and aftershocks?
5. Good Vibrations (P, S and surface waves)
After viewing the lecture, draw your best interpretations of P-wave (compression wave), S-wave (shear wave) and both the L and R surface waves. Make sure you view the wave animations in the lecture. List the wave (vibrations) characteristics — velocity and motion of waves
How are the body waves (P and S-waves) different when traveling through liquid and solid materials? Explain?
If all the waves (P,S and surface waves) were lined up prior to the release of energy (earthquake), which waves would “shoot” out first, second and third
During an earthquake, do we feel the effects of all the waves? Which waves would one feel first, second and third? Explain?
All waves are typically recorded onto a seismogram during an earthquake —- Given what you learned about seismic waves, which wave would contact the seismograph first, second and third?
Draw your own seismogram (you can access many depictions of seismograms from the internet) and see if you can pick out the P-wave arrival, S-wave arrival and the arrivals of surface waves. 6. Measuring earthquakes (The Richter, Mercalli and Moment Magnitude scales)– You may need to watch this section of the lecture video several times over — just saying. Relationship questions:
In your own words, describe the characteristics of each earthquake measuring scale: Richter Scale Mercalli Scale Moment Magnitude Scale
Why is the Mercalli scale “scientifically” inaccurate?, thus allowing the onset of the Richter scale?
The Richter scale measures the intensity (AMOUNT of SHAKING) using the seismograph
What type of mathematical scale is used in the Richeter scale, Explain
For every Richter magnitude (M1, M2, M3…..M8) intensity increases by 10. Explain how intensity increases from one magnitude to the next. In other words, how much shaking takes place from one magnitude to the next.?
How much stronger in terms of intensity is an M8 magnitude compared to a M1 magnitude?
Intensity increases by 10 (logarithmic scale) while the amount of energy release is 32 times more for every increase in Richter magnitude
How much more energy is released between a M1 and M3 magnitude earthquake?
How much more energy is released between a M1 and M5 earthquake?
And finally, compare the energy release between a M1 and M8 earthquake? WOW!– you should be saying that after you calculate the difference.
How is the Richter scale of measuring an earthquake different from the Mercalli scale?
How is moment magnitude scale the same as the Richter scale?
What makes the Moment Magnitude scale more accurate than the Richter scale?
Why is the Moment Magnitude scale used today and basically replaces the Richter scale. NOW, go back to question 6-1 of this section, and reanswer how you would describe each earthquake measuring scale —– Use what you have learned. 7. ACTIVITY: Fill a wide glass with water. If you have a small laser pointer, shoot a laser beam through the glass of water and observe how the beam exits the other side of the glass. You can use a flashlight beam, however the beam must be smaller than the glass. OR if you have a pool, shine the flashlight beam onto the surface of the pool water and observe where the beam hits the bottom of the pool. Now, answer the following questions.
Describe what happens to the laser or flashlight beam as it enters the water and comes out the other side or hits the bottom the pool (if you are using a flashlight on the pool surface)
Does the beam refract, get absorbed or reflect? Explain each term and describe and use the proper term that describes your answer in #1 above. During the release of body wave vibrations (seismic waves) when an earthquake takes place, the body waves enter the earth’s interior layers —– Define what is meant by a seismic discontinuity?
How is reflection, absorption and refraction related to seismic discontinuity?
How does a seismic discontinuity relate to the glass filled water activity you completed
Looking at the ppt slide where it shows the graphical relationship of how P and S waves travel through the interior parts of the earth answer the following questions:
Describe what happens to both the P and S wave velocities as they come in contact with various earth interior layers.
At what depths, within the earth’s interior, are major seismic discontinuities?
What happens to the S-wave as it enters the outer core? Explain.
Why do both the P and S waves slow down just below the lithosphere?
How does your answer in “d” relate to the mechanics of Plate Tectonics?
What is the shadow zone?
How is the shadow zone (40 degree arc of no P or S waves) determined?
What does the shadow zone tell scientists about the earth’s interior?
If an M8 magnitude occurs along the SAF, where would the shadow zone be located on earth? (You will need to research this one)
8. Can earthquakes currently be predicted??? Explain Why or Why not
9. Most seismologists incorporate the seismic gap method for earthquake prediction. Relationship questions:
How is the term “probability” used to describe the seismic gap method or EQ prediction?
Draw a picture of California and the location of the SAF. Research EQ locations for the last 50-100years and create a pattern of EQ activity on your map.
Where is there a “gap” of EQ activity along the SAF
How does this gap relate to the concept of predicting an EQ in this area
Based on the seismic gap studies of the SAF, explain why there is a 90% chance of a major EQ in our area M8 or above.
10. Based on what you have learned in this EQ lecture and activity sheet, How would you craft an educated answer to someone if they asked you, “When and where is the big one (referring to an EQ) in California, what would a Bakersfield seismogram look like and what would we feel in terms of released vibrations?
Possible Essay Questions for Exam-2
Contrast the difference between the Richter Magnitude and the Moment Magnitude Scales
Describe the characteristics of seismic waves released from a major earthquake and how these seismic waves propagate through the earth’s interior allowing scientists to understand the makeup of the earth’s interior.
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From lect appeared first on nursing writers.
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From lect first appeared on nursing writers.